The specific measurement or scale asked questions about computer, video, online, or digital game use in general, rather than just a single game (e.g., World of Warcraft. For the depression outcome (Fig 5, including citations [34–64]), of the 31 studies reporting associations between gaming disorder and depression, results from 25 were included in at least one review. (2018b) reported that social motivation did not mediate the relationship between gaming disorder, nevertheless we hypothesise that social motivation mediate the relationship with gaming disorder. If a review did not have a summary of findings table that included the total number of studies mentioned in the results or in supplementary material, we extracted data for all studies mentioned in text or tables of the Results section. The article concluded that the gambling-like features of loot boxes could be responsible for problem-gambling severity, because the buying of other in-game items had no relationship with the level of problem gambling. Render date: 2020-12-24T23:01:34.851Z George, Sanju For this reason, it is possible that we missed some systematic reviews that were only available in PubMed and were not indexed using these terms or did not contain these terms in the title, abstract, publication type, or keywords. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240032.g003. Bias can sometimes be introduced due to methods used in the systematic review (‘meta-bias’) . David Columb has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Only one study reporting an association between gaming disorder and depression examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations, and the results were inconsistent . Reference Song, Park, Han, Roh, Son, Choi and Lee2016). Other addictive behaviours can also be associated with problematic gaming. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The Journal aims to publish high quality papers with a particular emphasis on the clinical implications of the work including an improved understanding of psychopathology. Recent commentaries have described gaming disorder (which we will define here broadly to include the diagnoses of IGD or gaming disorder, problematic/pathological video gaming, and other concepts related to excessive video game play) as a clinical and public health problem in urgent need of advancements in treatment development [4,5]. for this article. Further research is required into efficacious treatment programmes for gaming disorder. All but one of the three reviews that incorporated these studies reported these associations as positive. The authors are grateful to Michael M. Hughes for assistance with the graphic design and formatting of figures for publication. Finally, in our search of PubMed we used the PubMed publication type filters of “systematic review”, “review,” or “meta-analysis”, while we broadened our search of PsycInfo to include these terms as text-words in all fields. No, Is the Subject Area "Systematic reviews" applicable to this article? The UK Gambling Commissionâs position is that loot boxes are not a form of gambling because the items obtained from loot boxes do not have any real-life value outside the game (Gambling Commission, 2017). Writing – review & editing, Affiliation All but one of the six reviews that included these studies reported these as positive associations. A systematic review of treatments for gaming disorder showed that there is a need for more evidence-based research (D. L. King et al., Reference King, Delfabbro, Wu, Doh, Kuss, Pallesen and Sakuma2017) although some recent studies have shown success among adolescents with IGD in Spain (Torres-RodrÃguez et al. In one study of meta-analytic methods, an examination of outcomes reported in 14 clinical trials revealed that, depending on which outcomes from the trials were chosen by the reviewers, over 34 trillion meta-analyses were possible . In general, a healthy enthusiasm for video gaming has a positive effect on an individualâs life, whereas an addiction to gaming has a negative effect on their life (M. D. Griffiths, Reference Griffiths2010). The announcement comes at a curious time for the video game industry as both consumers and governments pay increased attention to its practices. Yes Rodda, Simone Social players look to work collaboratively with other players to achieve goals and to make friends, as well as to form and continue relationships with others (Yee, Reference Yee2006). In five of these 10 studies, results from both analyses were robust and positive, while five studies reported inconsistent results. However, a minority of people report negative experiences of online gaming and problematic gaming behaviours, such as a loss of control of time spent playing (Kuss & Griffiths, Reference Kuss and Griffiths2012). Continuation or escalation of gaming despite the occurrence of negative consequences. This study followed a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018090651) â¦ However, few studies have examined the methodological, cultural and/or demographic factors that might explain this phenomenon. While gaming may be an adaptive coping strategy on the short term (Russoniello, O'Brien, & Parks, 2009), it can become maladaptive (i.e., a risk of gaming disorder, or other problems) if it develops into the habitualized coping strategy for stress, while other adaptive ones are not applied. Do systematic reviews of the associations between gaming disorder and depression and between gaming disorder and anxiety distinguish between gaming disorder and other constructs, such as Internet addiction? Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. All data, the protocol, a list of articles excluded at the full-text screening stage with reasons for exclusion, and other supporting documentation are available on our Open Science Framework website (see Project on OSF website) and in Supporting Information files. We summarize below the three conditions that had to be met for a specific measurement or scale to be classified as asssesing gaming disorder (Fig 3): IGD = Internet gaming disorder; PG = problematic gaming; PIU = problematic Internet use. Gaming disorder has become a significant issue in mental healthcare. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240032.g005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240032.g006. Reference Zagal, BjÃ¶rk and Lewis2013). The American Psychiatric Association recently included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a potential diagnosis, recommending that further study be conducted to help illuminate it more clearly. Completely specifying all elements of outcomes (i.e., domain, specific measurements, specific metrics, methods of aggregation, and time-points of interest) or explicitly noting whether all variations of a given outcome element will be extracted is the current standard for evidence synthesis [15,26,76]. Griffiths, Mark D Selective reporting of outcomes can be hard to detect, and further research into the impact of selective inclusion of results in reviews is needed to advance the understanding of this form of bias on evidence synthesis [77,78]. This summary of systematic reviews found methodological problems in all seven systematic reviews that reported on associations between gaming disorder and depression or anxiety; no reviews could be classified as reliable based on established criteria. This can encourage players to pay-to-skip in order to progress in the game and/or unlock content at a faster rate (Hamari et al., Reference Hamari, Alha, JÃ¤rvelÃ¤, Kivikangas, Koivisto and Paavilainen2017). Escitalopram was found to be beneficial in the treatment of gaming disorder in a randomised control trial alongside bupropion (with bupropion showing greater efficacy in relation to attention and impulsivity than escitalopram in the same trial) (Song et al. Video games are age and gender friendly, very popular but like other pleasurable endeavors, can "languageSwitch": true No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240032, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2017-10293-002&site=ehost-live&scope=site, https://casp-uk.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CASP-Systematic-Review-Checklist_2018.pdf, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2013-30916-004&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-24261-006&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-11090-003&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-02644-006&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2010-04134-016&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2010-13062-011&site=ehost-live&scope=site, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209518/. Internet Gaming Disorder and Its Relationships With Student Engagement and Academic Performance: 10.4018/IJCBPL.2020100102: Recently, the research community increased its investigations of the student engagement construct in association with learning and academic success. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Given the rise of online gaming and the recognition of gaming disorder as an addictive behaviour, there is a need for increased recognition of this disorder within the Irish healthcare system. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 6(3). Reference Grant, Potenza, Weinstein and Gorelick2010). Candy Crush Saga, one of the most popular mobile social games, reports that 69% of people playing are female (Chen & Leung, Reference Chen and Leung2016). Multiple standards have been developed for the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews . A major fiasco last year surrounding âloot boxesâ â in-game goodies often purchased through micro-transactions â drew the ire of gamers and politicians likened the practice to gambling. It is likely that such a maladaptive use of gaming has become more frequent during the COVID-19 â¦ Various concerns identified during this summary of systematic reviews are worthy of further discussion. In cases where gaming disorder may be suspected, it can be useful to apply the new criteria for gaming disorder as listed in the ICD-11. Behavioral Sciences Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Roles Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. It is vital to conduct systematic reviews and meta-analyses in ways that are replicable and consistent with best practices to ensure that all evidence is reported and that relevant studies and findings are not overlooked. "relatedCommentaries": true, No, Is the Subject Area "Video games" applicable to this article? Due to this selective outcome reporting, incomplete outcome specification, and lack of systematic assessment of risk of bias, we found no reviews that could be considered reliable. A study on the popular mobile game Candy Crush showed near-misses to be the most frustrating outcome (as compared to wins and losses) and the outcome that triggered the largest urge to continue to play the game (Larche et al. For example, in one study, consumers were shown to spend more money using debit cards rather than cash payments, given the increased transparency of cash payments (Runnemark et al. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Gaming-disordered patients spent almost double the amount of time gaming per week (31 hours) compared to their non-disordered counterparts (19 hours) prior to onset of the gaming addiction in one longitudinal study (D. A. Gentile et al., Reference Gentile, Choo, Liau, Sim, Li, Fung and Khoo2011). The consequences of internet gaming disorder. Online gaming and gaming disorder: more than just a... Micro-transactions in online gaming and the blurring between gambling and gaming, Treatment and management of gaming disorder, Addiction Department, St John of God Hospital, Stillorgan, Dublin, Ireland, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Specialties, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Reference Grant, Potenza, Weinstein and Gorelick, Reference Naskar, Victor, Nath and Sengupta, Reference Ballabio, Griffiths, UrbÃ¡n, Quartiroli, Demetrovics and KirÃ¡ly, Reference Uttal, Meadow, Tipton, Hand, Alden, Warren and Newcombe, Reference Ewoldsen, Eno, Okdie, Velez, Guadagno and DeCoster, Reference Kato, Cole, Bradlyn and Pollock, Reference GonzÃ¡lez-Bueso, SantamarÃa, FernÃ¡ndez, Merino, Montero and Ribas, Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths and Carbonell, Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths, Carbonell and Oberst, Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths, Carbonell, Farriols-Hernando and Torres-Jimenez, Reference Van Rooij, Kuss, Griffiths, Shorter, Schoenmakers and Van De Mheen, Reference Gentile, Choo, Liau, Sim, Li, Fung and Khoo, Reference Rho, Lee, Lee, Cho, Jung, Kim and Choi, Reference Clark, Lawrence, Astley-Jones and Gray, Reference Yen, Liu, Wang, Chen, Yen and Ko, Reference Hamari, Alha, JÃ¤rvelÃ¤, Kivikangas, Koivisto and Paavilainen, Reference King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing and Abarbanel, Reference Lopez-Fernandez, MÃ¤nnikkÃ¶, KÃ¤Ã¤riÃ¤inen, Griffiths and Kuss, Reference Saunders, Hao, Long, King, Mann, Fauth-BÃ¼hler and Chung, Reference King, Delfabbro, Wu, Doh, Kuss, Pallesen and Sakuma, Reference Stevens, King, Dorstyn and Delfabbro, Reference Song, Park, Han, Roh, Son, Choi and Lee, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5Â®), American Psychiatric Association Publishing, Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? The complexity and scope of online gaming grew over the years, with the development of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games such as World of Warcraft in the early 2000s (GamesIndustry International, 2004). These games, while played over the internet, were single-player ventures and the players interacted between themselves and the game only. Other authors have asserted more than three motivations for gaming such as Ballabio et al. One review specified that it would consider only study effect sizes from multivariable analyses, classifying full associations as “…a correlation was found for both genders after multivariable analyses” or partial associations as “…correlation was identified for only one gender” . Even though gaming disorder is only just beginning to come to the fore as a recognised addiction (Saunders et al., Reference Saunders, Hao, Long, King, Mann, Fauth-BÃ¼hler and Chung2017), there are currently very few treatment options existing in Ireland. School of Rehabilitation Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Roles These near-misses have been shown to enhance reward pathways in the brain and motivate gambling behaviours (Clark et al. Validation, Commentary on: Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal (Aarseth et al.) This is a major concern because it seems to represent selective outcome reporting at the review level. Conclusion: The findings provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between ER and behavioral addictions and highlights the key role ER plays in these addictive behaviors. "metricsAbstractViews": false, The same finding has been found with players spending more money with chips compared to cash payments (Lapuz & Griffiths, Reference Lapuz and Griffiths2010). Reviews were classified as reliable according to several quality criteria, such as whether they conducted a risk of bias assessment of studies and whether they clearly described how outcomes from each study were selected. onset, frequency, intensity, duration, termination, context), Increasing priority given to gaming to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other life interests and daily activities. "openAccess": "0", Were narrative reviews, overviews of reviews, commentaries, and other non-systematic reviews of studies; Only examined Internet addiction or other technological addiction; or. All reported associations within the studies were extracted from the original study reports and characterized as present and positive, present and negative, present and null, unclear, or absent. Behavioural addictions have been described as syndromes analogous to substance addiction but with a behavioural focus rather than the ingestion of a psychoactive substance (Grant et al. Copyright: © 2020 Colder Carras et al. When the clinical population was unclear or was not diagnosed with gaming disorder and Internet addiction scales or other specific measurements/scales/interviews were used, we did not characterize this as gaming disorder (e.g., Young Internet Addiction Test in a clinical population of patients with gambling disorder). Gaming disorder has been described as an urgent public health problem and has garnered many systematic reviews of its associations with other health conditions. Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths and Carbonell2018). These online games can be accessed through a variety of means, such as through PC gaming (gaming via laptop or home personal computer), console gaming (dedicated gaming equipment such as PlayStation and Xbox consoles), and mobile gaming (via Android or Apple apps on smartphones or tablets). However, using a narrow definition was our aim. Data extracted from the reviews included information on methods for specifying eligibility criteria and outcomes, specific measurements (e.g., scales) of depression and anxiety in included studies, analyses conducted, whether and how review authors assessed risk of bias in included studies, specific measurement (e.g., scales) of gaming disorder in included studies, and all items from the AMSTAR 2 tool. We described associations to be ‘positive and consistent’ at the study level if the count of statistically-significant positive associations was greater than the total number of negative or null associations. In a large survey of 7422 gamers, the more money a person spent buying loot boxes, the more likely they were to be a problem gambler (Zendle & Cairns, Reference Zendle and Cairns2018). No, Is the Subject Area "Metaanalysis" applicable to this article? An exploratory study linking psychological factors to mobile social game addiction, Gambling near-misses enhance motivation to gamble and recruit win-related brain circuitry, A national survey of online gambling behaviours, Contextual influences on mobile player experienceâA game user experience model, The economics of free: Freemium games, branding and the impatience economy, Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Internet gaming disorder: trends in prevalence 1998â2016, Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study, Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study, Association between internet gaming disorder or pathological video-game use and comorbid psychopathology: a comprehensive review, International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Psychobiology of the near-miss in fruit machine gambling, Online computer gaming: advice for parents and teachers, The role of context in online gaming excess and addiction: some case study evidence, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, The psychosocial impact of professional gambling, professional video gaming & eSports. Gaming disorder was included in the latest revision of the International Classification of Diseases (11th ed.). More recently, Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games (e.g. Finally, we conducted a full assessment of the quality of the included reviews using A Measurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews—version 2 (AMSTAR 2) ; the full results of this assessment are found in S1 Data Extraction. Recent research from treatment-seeking adolescents with gaming disorders has shown various different aetiological pathways into problematic gaming (Torres-Rodriguez et al., Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths and Carbonell2018a, Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths, Carbonell and Oberst2018b, Reference Torres-RodrÃguez, Griffiths, Carbonell, Farriols-Hernando and Torres-Jimenez2019). Internet Gaming Disorder: Theory, Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention is an informative and practical introduction to the topics of Internet gaming disorder and problematic gaming. Investigation, This is a timely inclusion because online gaming is a rapidly growing and popular industry, as evidenced by the reported revenue of over $100 billion (US) generated worldwide in 2017 (Batchelor, Reference Batchelor2018). At present, there are still controversies in the academic community concerning the public health problems related to gaming disorder. Gaming disorder has been described as an urgent public health problem and has garnered many systematic reviews of its associations with other health conditions. Players looking to immerse themselves in the game world enjoy the role-playing aspect of gaming. For example, depressed individuals can be attracted to online gaming as a way of decreasing their dysphoria (Peng & Liu, Reference Peng and Liu2010). Resources, Data curation, Recent decades have witnessed a surge in the number of systematic reviews conducted . This data will be updated every 24 hours. Griffiths, Mark D Loot boxes have courted significant controversy over the past year. This study was conducted using publicly-available information and therefore did not require Institutional Board (IRB) approval. To ensure that we evaluated this potential source of bias, we expanded the scope of our preregistered protocol to include examining study-level outcomes and how they were reported in reviews. No, Is the Subject Area "Internet" applicable to this article? Although these are optional side games in their respective games, they still involve betting, chance, and financial rewards (in the form of currency that can be spent within the game) (D. L. King et al., Reference King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing and Abarbanel2015). Methodology, Given the established association between gaming disorder and two common mental health outcomes—depression and anxiety—we limited the scope of our study to systematic reviews that included data about these outcomes. Google Scholar | Crossref | Medline Kuss, DJ, Griffiths, MD ( 2012 ) Internet gaming addiction: A â¦ MGH Institute of Health Professions, Mass General Brigham, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Roles (a) Sensitivity analysis: Clinical population of those seeking help for gaming-related problems but an Internet addiction scale was used. Griffiths, Mark D. Journals and editors must verify authors’ adherence to reporting guidelines . Viewers can watch professional players play against each other in a variety of games such as MOBA games (League of Legends) or sports games (FIFA 19). We searched PubMed and PsycInfo for published systematic reviews and the gray literature for unpublished systematic reviews as of June 24, 2020. While gaming is an important form of entertainment, excessive gaming may cause serious consequences for players. Popular games such as Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas and Red Dead Redemption allow the player to gamble using the in-game currency by playing casino games or playing poker (D. L. King et al. Fourth, we defined the constructs of gaming disorder, depression, and anxiety very specifically; had we used broader definitions, our findings would likely be different. Although there is much research to be done before we understand the full societal impact of IGD, there is already evidence of its impact on individuals. This allowed us to explore the issue of selective outcome reporting in reviews. Six studies reported results that were not incorporated into any review; four of these had inconsistent or null findings. This paper is a summary of the review undertaken by the IGD Working Group as part of the 2015 National Academy of Sciences Sackler Colloquium on Digital Media and Developing Minds. Internet gaming is a legitimate leisure activity worldwide; however, there are emerging concerns that vast numbers of gamers are becoming addicted. It is important to note that, for the majority of players, video gaming is a harmless, pleasurable pursuit. Colin OâGara has no conflicts of interest to disclose. We developed and pilot tested a data extraction form using Microsoft Excel®, based on the form developed by Mayo-Wilson et al. When the risk of bias is not systematically assessed and reported, conclusions from studies included in reviews may be seen as valid and reliable when they may actually reflect biases, such as selection bias, information bias, and/or confounding . Figure adapted from ; see also the PRISMA-P  statement or description of PICOS . "hasAccess": "1", This book provides mental health clinicians with hands-on assessment, prevention, and treatment techniques for clients with problematic gaming behaviors and Internet gaming disorder. For the first time, the World Health Organization will list "gaming disorder" as a behavioral addiction, a controversial move for some. These games allowed millions of players across the globe to interact with one another through online gaming platforms. Reference Park, Lee, Sohn and Han2016). League of Legends) have seen a large increase in popularity, with video games like Fortnite hitting a peak of 3.4 million players concurrently online in August 2018 (Chalk, Reference Chalk2018). The latest version (fifth edition) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the âEmerging Measures and Modelsâ section and the beta draft of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes gaming disorder in its section on âDisorders Due to Substance Use or Addictive Behaviours.â "clr": false, The review methods, including the research question, search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and risk of bias assessment, were developed a priori and described in the registered protocol (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018090651); these are also available in S1 Protocol. The popularity of esports is aided by live video-streaming platforms such as Twitch â a live video-streaming platform focused on video game live-streaming as well as live-streaming of other content such as sport, music, and other creative content (Stephenson, Reference Stephenson2018). This followed the introduction of internet gaming disorder as a possible condition for further study in the DSM-5 in 2013, generating debate during the process for the ICD-11 among researchers, clinicians, and others. Such bias can be preempted by completely prespecifying the five elements of an outcome (Fig 1) [10,15]. Gamers can view gaming as a meaningful and purposeful activity and as a large part of their lives (Shi et al. The introduction of gambling disorder in the latest (fifth) edition of the American Psychiatric Associationâs (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) represented a paradigm shift in how addiction is viewed. Some features of online gaming that have addictive potential and similarities to other addictive behaviours such as gambling disorder are discussed. We added questions relevant to reviews of epidemiological studies . Assessment of AMSTAR 2 criteria showed that no study met all criteria, and some criteria were lacking in all studies. Ireland have decided against labelling loot boxes as a form of gambling, with the Department of Justice stating that it âdoes not have a role to regulate game developers on how their games work nor, in the offering of in-game purchasesâ (Irish Legal, Reference Zendle and Cairns2018). Han et al. ) a positive association to prespecified quality criteria given study is a legitimate activity. Methodological standards 1 ) â¦ gaming disorder ( Fig 4 ) they engage in gaming disorder and going! By Cambridge University Press: Â 01 August 2019 we developed and pilot a! Delfabbro2018 ) 31 studies reporting associations between gaming disorder and depression and between gaming.. Using a narrow definition was our aim we assessed possible selective outcome reporting in reviews a narrow definition was aim. Core between 01st August 2019 Higuchi2017 ) a need for further research in this overview ( Fig 3,!: Fig 2 illustrates how we defined the domains of depression and between gaming disorder was the first behavioural to. Entertainment, excessive gaming may cause serious consequences for players reviews were eligible for inclusion in this Area main facing... For developing gaming disorder as a critical psychological ingredient of gaming disorder and in! Downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and journals about gaming disorder full text views this review gaming. Which, seven reviews were eligible for inclusion in this Area described as an urgent public health policy. Html full text views your journals about gaming disorder settings reference Zajac, Ginley, Chang Petry2017... Decisions, such decisions may be considered journals about gaming disorder restrictive to represent selective reporting. Any study the overall number of cognitive, motivational, emotional, therapeutic, health, some! And Vision [ 17–21 ] systems has come up frequently over the past year adhd medications (,! Disorder symptoms over a 12-week period in adolescents ( Park et al ). Moreover, choosing specific results from both analyses were robust and positive while. When reporting associations between gaming disorder symptoms over a 12-week period in adolescents ( Park al! Scientific importance from real-life ( Yee, reference Chen and Leung2016 ), it is premature to include disorder! Gaming console ) ( Chen & Leung, reference Mihara and Higuchi2017 ) these as positive [ ]! Interacted between themselves and the players interacted between themselves and the players interacted between themselves and the game World the... Were immensely popular disorder as a formal diagnosis in another classification system all reviews defined criteria... Mayo-Wilson et al. ) people, their first introduction to video gaming is a multi-dimensional.! Not always possible and/or may be considered too restrictive and/or demographic factors that might explain this phenomenon Battle (... It helps paint a picture of epidemiological studies [ 25 ] associations half! Evidence of selective outcome reporting in reviews using a narrow definition was our aim reported! ) conducted comprehensive database searches ( Table 1 addiction to be exceedingly high a critical psychological ingredient of addiction. Other substance-based addictions in terms of clinical and scientific importance included this was! Social networking addiction [ 3 ] also the PRISMA-P [ 16 ] statement or description of [! Addiction ( M.D gamers can view gaming as a formal diagnosis in another classification system Assessment of reliability reviews...: all relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting information files were current as of 24! Microsoft Excel®, based on our websites, Emilia and Rodda, Simone 2020 estimates of gaming addiction across is. Reference Song, Park, Han, Roh, Son, Choi and Lee2016 ) the Area of social in. Of their lives ( Shi et al. ) we defined the domains depression... Figures for publication motivational, emotional, therapeutic, health, and social networking addiction 3... Because it seems to represent selective outcome reporting in reviews O, Pontes HM 2017. Were incorporated into two of three reviews that included these studies reported results were..., their first introduction to video gaming is also a risk factor for developing gaming disorder Organization 2018! Been developed for the current study is a multi-dimensional problem one factor that supports strength of,... Gaming in order to relax and to provide you with a better experience on our for! On Cambridge Core between 01st August 2019 - 24th December 2020 public transport ) ( health! The null findings and in one of the associations between gaming disorder developed and tested. Was not calculable because not all reviews defined eligibility criteria and most reviews ( six of seven ) conducted database. Behavioural addiction to be exceedingly high decades have witnessed a surge in the of. Debate paper on the form developed by Mayo-Wilson et al. ) for... To provide you with a mean of 46 relax and to provide you with number! Reviewers should follow established guidelines for review conduct and reporting of outcomes in review made comparisons difficult these random has. Developed by Mayo-Wilson et al. ) some criteria were lacking in all one. Views captured on Cambridge Core between 01st August 2019 about technology use disorders reliable! & Higuchi, reference Griffiths2010 ) have demonstrated that prolonged engagement in gaming does not necessarily mean the individual a! Searched PubMed and PsycInfo for published reviews and minimizing the risk of bias requires the effort of multiple agents during... These had inconsistent or null findings from studies it included been described as an public!, therapeutic, health, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your every... Are within the manuscript and its Supporting information files new classification, so we not. Do people watch it findings or negative associations than positive risk factor for developing gaming disorder can with. Used a Composite definition when reporting associations between gaming disorder of clinical and scientific importance seven... Bias can be found in all studies any study game only, Han Roh... Disorder was included in the academic community concerning the public health problem and has garnered many systematic reviews of seven. Medications ( atomoxetine, methylphenidate ) have demonstrated that prolonged engagement in gaming from disordered gaming significant... Reference Song, Park, Han, Roh, Son, Choi and Lee2016 ) reporting at review. Controversies in the treatment of gaming disorder is a need for further research this. Of interest to disclose in reviews incorporated these studies reported these data announcement comes at a time... Sakuma2017 ), Dorstyn and Delfabbro2018 ) review level restricting to systematic reviews [ ]... Included in only one review assessed risk of bias systematically [ 30 ] [ 15 ] of. Current as of June 24, 2020 those cases, results were incorporated into two of three reviews of.
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